Lost in the Maze of Non-Botox® Products?TM
The Science of Acetyl Hexapeptide-3 (AH-3)
Many products use an AH-3 preparation called *Argireline®. Argireline® is a solution that contains AH-3 and Butyl, Iso-buytl, Methyl and Propyl Parabens. NaturDermTM uses only pure Acetyl Hexapeptide-3 in NaturdermxTM as NaturDermTM products do not contain excess preservatives.
Scientific research is explosive in the anti-aging arena. Skin aging is affected by internal and external stresses and cellular changes. Cellular changes have to do with free-radical damage, genetics, a breakdown of collagen and elastin, and the lipid, or fat matrix of the skin. These changes effect wrinkle formation. Research shows that these changes can be avoided by interrupting repetitive muscle contraction, and the residual muscle tension that remains. Use of BoNT's (Botulinum Neurotoxins), to reverse of signs of facial aging, launched new research into synthetic peptides to produce similar results without the toxic side effects. Synthetic amino acid peptides that mimic several of the compounds necessary to conduct neurotransmitter release, and the resulting muscle contraction, have revolutionized the skin care industry. This conduction requires a complex of 3 compounds that create a “zip-lock” connection between the neurons for the contraction to occur. Block the “zip-lock”, and you affect the contraction, is it that simple?
You would never believe it from some of the marketing on these products. Inaccurate information is transposed, copied, and copied again. This is a highly complex arena. We offer the information here in hopes of assisting our customers to understand what the words mean to enable them to make an educated decision.
All cells have chemical and electrical properties. Muscles cannot contract without the release of the mineral Calcium. BoNT's (Botulinum Neurotoxins) inhibit the release of Ca++ and bind, or fuse, to synaptic proteins (proteins in the space between 2 neurons, or nerve cells). This release of Ca++ for muscle contractions is called a Calcium trigger. Calcium triggers the formation of the Snare Complex, also called the 20 S Complex, which is a type of Core Synaptic Fusion Complex the most researched form of fusion complex, and responsible for the fusion process. The fusion process is controlled by amino acid peptides in the 20 S Complex, and fuses the target and vesicle membranes of the neurons. This fusion causes vesicles in the neurons to release acetylcholine that in turn causes the muscle contraction. Nerve cells are costly and troublesome to culture; it is common in neural studies for chromaffin cells to be substituted. Chromaffin cells can be found in the medulla of the adrenal gland and some ganglia (clusters of nerve cells) of the sympathetic nervous system (regulates involuntary actions such as the heart beat and respiration). Their name is derived due to their ability to be seen when stained with chromium salts. Chromaffin cells secrete catecholamines, not acetylcholine. These studies are often misinterpreted. Neurons secrete acetylcholine.
The synapse is the space between two neurons. A SNAP is a synapse protein that resides in this space (Synaptosome Associated Protein, or Soluble NSF Attachment Protein). SNAP proteins are not limited to neurons. A NSF is a fusion protein that regulates formulation and dissociation of complexes needed for membrane fusion (N-ethylamaleimide-sensitive Fusion Protein). A SNARE is a receptor protein. A SNARE is also a VAMP (Vessicle Associated Member Protein). A SNARE resides on the plasma membrane of the neuron. There are Vesicle, V-SNAREs and Target, or Target membrane, T-SNAREs. This is a highly sophisticated, confusing realm of complicated physiological interactions. The terminology is randomly, and often inaccurately used in the skin care industry.
Syntaxins are a type of SNARE protein (receptor protein), and are polypeptides. Humans have 15 members in the syntaxin family. In mammals they are trans-membrane proteins with a coiled -coil alpha helical structure. Syntaxins, SNAREs, and SNAPs have to do with transportation across cellular membranes with different operational structures within the cell. Syntaxins interact with other proteins. The cellular function of a syntaxin is determined by its location. For example, syntaxin 4 is essential to transport glucose molecules to the membranes of insulin receptor cells. The SNARE domain of a syntaxin regulates how it interacts with other domains. The 20 S Complex, or SNARE complex is comprised of specific proteins. One of them is the SNAP-25. A synthetic peptide, Acetyl Hexapeptide-3 (AH-3) is a 6-mer peptide patterned after the N end of N -terminal domain of the SNAP-25. AH-3 competes for the same connection as SNAP 25. A slight disruption destabilizes the connection and blocks the fusion of the neurons, which blocks the muscle contraction.
It is interesting to note that European females between the ages of 15-30 in 2005 spent as much money as men in the USA on anti-aging products...11million USD, and that was 2005... This is a global trend. Many young people read the scientific literature and believe if they begin to use cosmeceuticals now, it may lessen the signs of aging they experience in their skin during their lifetime.
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**based upon average use, results may vary - use as recommended. *Botox® is a registered trademark of Allergan ***Argireline®, and Leuphasyl® are registered trademarks of CenterChem. Matrixyl® is a registered trademark of Sederma.
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